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Active RFID, Passive LF/HF RFID and Passive UHF RFID all have their own unique standards governing their associated products.


Passive UHF RFID is currently the only type of RFID to be regulated by a single global standard. This standard is called EPCglobal UHF Gen 2 V1, or just Gen 2. UHF Gen 2 defines the communications protocol for a passive backscatter.


EPCglobal certification testing includes conformance testing, which ensures that RFID products are compliant with the UHF Gen2 Standards, and interoperability testing, which makes sure that all aspects of the tag reader interface are properly designed to interoperate seamlessly with other Gen 2 certified products.


While most passive RFID tags use the energy from the RFID reader, Active (BAP) tags use an integrated power source, usually a battery, to power. This mean all of the captured energy from the reader can be used for backscatter. Unlike transponders, BAP tags do not have their own transmitters. 






The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. An independent U.S. government agency overseen by Congress, the commission is the United States' primary authority for communications law, regulation and technological innovation. In its work facing economic opportunities and challenges associated with rapidly evolving advances in global communications, the agency capitalizes on its competencies in:


  • Promoting competition, innovation and investment in broadband services and facilities

  • Supporting the nation's economy by ensuring an appropriate competitive framework for the unfolding of the communications revolution

  • Encouraging the highest and best use of spectrum domestically and internationally

  • Revising media regulations so that new technologies flourish alongside diversity and localism

  • Providing leadership in strengthening the defence of the nation's communications infrastructure









ATA is a global commercial aviation industry which collaborates to create standards for information exchange to support engineering, maintenance, material management and flight operations. Members include airlines, aerospace manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, repair agencies, software providers and consultants who jointly develop a variety of standards used to make information exchange easier and more efficient. As a result, airlines and suppliers have seen dramatic improvements in data efficiency, security and consistency, and have experienced a significant reduction in the time required for delivery and retrieval of operationally critical information.






ATA Spec 2000 - Created by the airline industry to revolutionize the multi-billion dollar aviation parts business, Spec 2000 is a comprehensive set of e-Business specifications, products and services that are designed to overcome challenges that have plagued the industry's supply chain for decades. Widely used by the world's airlines and suppliers, the system has served the industry for more than 40 years and has evolved to embrace the latest technological advances in information exchange. By streamlining business processes and reducing administrative costs, Spec 2000 has grown to become the backbone of the aviation industry's current e-business processes. As a result, the industry has attributed significant operational efficiencies and cost savings to the Spec 2000 system. As more trading partners embrace it, the system becomes increasingly more efficient and effective.

Administered by the ATA e-Business Program, Spec 2000 is the product of 12 international industry associations representing airlines, manufacturers, suppliers and repair agencies. The primary goal is to provide cost-effective, state-of-the-art methods for information exchange that are usable by the widest possible population of companies. Today the system includes four types of information exchange:

  • ATA Aviation Marketplace

  • E-Commerce Standards

  • File Standards

  • Bar Coding Standards


Collectively, these four components comprise the Spec 2000 e-business system. The system is specifically tailored to the airline industry's needs for procurement and repair transactions for aircraft maintenance, and is recognized as the industry standard by a long list of participants worldwide. (See Spec 2000 Directory.) Your company may be in the process of deciding whether, or when, to embrace e-business. Time and money savings can depend upon current costs and structure of your internal administrative and operational processes. However, you cannot assign a tangible dollar value to the advantage of staying competitive within an industry. Sometimes you must respond to a request from a trading partner to embrace new e-business methods. Consider the following positive results in your analysis:

  • Reduced inventory holdings due to electronic ordering

  • Single electronic price catalogue vs. many paper catalogues

  • Reduced administrative time for exchange of business data

  • Fewer telephone calls, faxes, paper forms, handling and postage

  • Improved data accuracy

  • Reduced lead time from streamlined electronic ordering and invoice management

  • Additional utilization of existing internal data processing systems

  • Reduced processing costs of electronic vs. paper documents

  • Common method for interfacing with many trading partners

  • Improved traceability of serialized parts and part shipments

  • Improved airline configuration control







The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products.


The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; the FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include regulating lasers, cellular phones, condoms and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction.







ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non-governmental membership organization and the world's largest developer of voluntary International Standards.

We are made up of our 163 member countries who are the national standards bodies around the world, with a Central Secretariat that is based in Geneva, Switzerland.

International Standards make things work. They give world-class specifications for products, services and systems, to ensure quality, safety and efficiency. They are instrumental in facilitating international trade.

ISO has published more than 19 500 International Standards covering almost every industry, from technology, to food safety, to agriculture and healthcare. ISO International Standards impact everyone, everywhere.







GS1 is a neutral, not-for-profit, international organization that develops and maintains standards for supply and demand chains across multiple sectors. With local Member Organizations in over 110 countries, GS1 works with communities of trading partners, industry organizations, governments and technology providers and responds to their business needs through the adoption and implementation of global standards.


GS1 has over a million employee companies across the world, executing more than six billion transactions daily using GS1 standards.








BSI Global is the business standards company that helps organizations all over the world make excellence a habit. For more than a century we have been challenging mediocrity and complacency to help embed excellence into the way people and products work. That means showing businesses how to improve performance, reduce risk and achieve sustainable growth. As a global leader in helping organizations improve, our clients range from high profile brands to small, local companies in 150 countries worldwide.








The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), produces globally-applicable standards for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), including fixed, mobile, radio, converged, broadcast and Internet technologies. Our standards enable the technologies on which business and society rely. For example, our standards for GSM™, DECT™, Smart Cards and electronic signatures have helped to revolutionize modern life all over the world.









The Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) brings together 48 countries to develop common policies and regulations in electronic communications and related applications for Europe, and to provide the focal point for information on spectrum use. Its primary objective is to harmonise the efficient use of the radio spectrum, satellite orbits and numbering resources across Europe. It takes an active role at the international level, preparing common European proposals to represent European interests in the ITU and other international organisations. 


The ECC’s approach is strategic, open and forward-looking, and based on consensus between the member countries. It applies its expertise in partnership with all stakeholders, the European Commission and ETSI to facilitate the delivery of technologies and services for the benefit of society.


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